How to develop China's food machinery industry

How to develop China's food machinery industry

How to develop China's food machinery industry The innovation system is not sound enough The food equipment industry in China started late, lacking scientific research methods and facilities that are compatible with technological development and market demand, and the technical resources are very scattered. This has led to a lack of technological innovation capability in the food equipment industry in China. First, after some key scientific research institutes were changed to enterprises, most of their technical staff were struggling for survival. Some scientific research institutions mainly focused on selling products and were not able to exert their scientific research advantages and weakened the technological innovation power of the industry. Even with new research results, due to the inability to achieve industrialization, it cannot be translated into productivity in a timely manner. Secondly, the mode of technological innovation that is strongly advocated by the combination of industry, academia, and research is mainly based on the state-sponsored research and development institution. After the end of the project, the innovation institution is generally dissolved automatically. There is no comparable country in the whole country. Long-term mechanism combining production, learning, and research. Third, in the development of scientific research and technology, it is mainly absorbed by digestion and absorption, and the original innovation capacity is insufficient. At present, China's food equipment put on the market is mainly imitation, mapping or slightly transformed products. The high-end main technology of the industry still relies on imports from abroad. There are few food processing equipment products with independent intellectual property rights. Many foreign countries have long been industrialized high-tech, China is still in the laboratory test stage.

Inadequate discipline construction In recent years, the training of professionals in food and packaging equipment has weakened. According to incomplete statistics, by the end of 2008, there was no separate setting of the food machinery specialty in the professional setting of colleges and universities across the country, and the training of food equipment talents with social needs was completed through related professions, such as mechanical specialty, food engineering specialty, packaging engineering specialty, etc. . Food equipment does not have special professional settings. Persons engaged in food equipment come from the graduates of the above majors, and food equipment has its own requirements for materials, hygiene, process control, special processing of different raw materials, packaging, storage, and shelf-life quality. On the basis of learning general mechanical technology, we must continue to increase the training of professional personnel, especially the integration of complete engineering, electronic information, machinery, and technology. Moreover, with the continuous development of new technologies, biotechnology has played an inestimable role in food engineering. In view of this situation, there is a need for professional talents in equipment structure, precise control of process conditions, and on-line inspection methods.

Insufficient scientific research investment According to the successful experience of foreign food packaging equipment, companies investing in research and development accounts for 1% of sales, which makes it difficult for companies to survive. The average level of food packaging equipment companies in China is less than 1%. According to statistics, the national R&D expenditure only accounts for 0.3%-0.5% of the company's sales revenue, R&D personnel only account for 3.4%-4% of the employees, and the experimental conditions of the institutes and institutions of higher education are behind. Therefore, compared to the level of foreign scientific research investment, China's scientific investment is seriously insufficient.

Low level of product technology At present, China's food equipment industry is flooded with food equipment products that are low in cost, relatively backward in technology, and easy to manufacture. In recent years, there have been about a few thousand low-level repeated products of enterprises, and the production of negative equipment continues to flood the market. As a result, the overall technological level of China's food equipment is lagging behind that of developed countries for about 20 years. There are many factors that restrict the structure of food equipment products, mainly the technical level, manufacturing capacity, and economic conditions of the company. Enterprises with backward technologies can only manufacture low-level products; enterprises with insufficient manufacturing capacity can only produce relatively crude products; enterprises with poor economic conditions can only follow the production of other people's products. Due to the above situation, China's food equipment industry has a low degree of automation, and the market has poor ability to meet requirements. There are many stand-alone products and complete sets of equipment; there are many mainframes and few auxiliary machines; there are many low-tech products, high-tech, high added value, and high productivity. Less products; more primary processing equipment, fewer deep-processing equipment; more general-purpose models, special requirements, special materials processing models. Product performance compared with similar foreign products, low production capacity, high energy consumption, the average energy consumption is 4-6 times that of developed countries. In particular, the performance gap of large-scale complete sets of equipment is even greater. The more advanced domestic models have about 1/2 of their advanced production capacity.

Resources, energy, environment and cost pressures The globally limited resources have been severely depleted, the environment has been destroyed, and oil and other energy sources have also been in crisis, leading to rising raw material prices. China's food and packaging machinery industry has entered a high-cost era. Therefore, we must reduce production costs, reduce material consumption, strengthen the recycling and recycling of materials, save energy, protect the environment, and ensure the sustainable and coordinated development of the food and packaging machinery industry.

Insufficient protection of food safety In recent years, governments at all levels and their competent authorities have taken many measures in an effort to promote the improvement of food quality and safety. These measures mainly aim at improving the quality and safety of agricultural products, and none of them are food manufacturing. Special treatment of equipment. Although some supervision and management measures involve the relevant contents of food manufacturing equipment, they are only general requirements and no clear technical regulations have been laid before people. For example, the “Administrative Measures on Quality and Safety Supervision and Administration of Food Production and Processing Enterprises” proposes that food production and processing enterprises must have production equipment, process equipment and related auxiliary equipment to ensure the quality and safety of products; it is proposed in the “General Requirements for Food Quality and Safety Market Qualified Personnel Review”. Food production and processing companies must have production facilities and production equipment that are compatible with the quality and safety of products. In the various food quality and safety market access review rules, only the number of food manufacturing equipment is proposed, and there are no product performance indicators. Without safety and health requirements, such supervision does not fundamentally solve the safety and health problems of food manufacturing equipment. In addition, some food manufacturing equipment does not meet the requirements of food safety, which is one of the important reasons for the high rate of unqualified food processing in China.

Inadequate support for the development of the food industry In recent years, the development of the food industry in China has witnessed rapid development. The development of the food industry requires food and packaging machinery and equipment as a support, while the technical level of China's food equipment products is backward and the product structure is not reasonable. The varieties and supporting quantities are small, the mechanical processing level is low, the equipment is backward, the basic parts and accessories are short-lived, and the new product development capability is seriously insufficient, thus making the products lack of technical competitiveness. The food and packaging machinery industry in China is relatively backward to the food industry. Development did not play a very good supporting role.

Suggestions and Considerations To change ideas Food and packaging machinery companies must take into consideration the relationships and needs of upstream and downstream. Manufacturing itself is a systematic project that includes raw materials, processing, logistics, sales, etc. Food safety should be managed from the soil, varieties, field fertilization and application management of raw materials, quality assurance of harvest storage, quality control of processing, and environmental control of circulation In other areas, do a good job in quality and safety control and implement a traceability system. This puts higher requirements on food and packaging machinery. It must not only focus on its own manufacturing quality, but also continuously apply new materials, new technologies, and new processes to improve the technical grades, and it must also be suitable for the characteristics of materials in the food processing process. Nutrient preservation, process quality control and commodity circulation characteristics and other requirements.

It is necessary to insist on the independent innovation of China's food and packaging machinery. Although the development speed is higher than that of the food industry, it is still far from meeting the needs. Major key technologies are introduced, digested, and reinvented. The vast majority of our current technology is still imitation of foreign countries, and only 5%--10% of the truly independent research and development are still too small. Our country’s basic industry is weak, and the food and packaging machinery industry started relatively late. It was really developed from around 1985 or 1986. It takes only 20 years to catch up with the development of advanced countries for a hundred years. Too realistic, learning from learning is also inevitable. In the blank areas and major key technologies must be through the introduction, digestion and absorption, and then innovation, shorten the development cycle. We must combine our industrial base, people's preference for food, species specificity, etc. to develop core technologies and key and complete sets of equipment with independent intellectual property rights, and use advanced manufacturing technologies to transform and upgrade traditional industries.

We must take the road of integration of production, education and research and establish a strategic alliance for industrial technology innovation. China's food and packaging machinery companies are small in scale and have a decentralized degree of concentration. They are unable to invest funds in R&D, lack original innovation, lack common technical supply, and lack core competitiveness. It is necessary to improve the technological innovation system that integrates the integration of production, study and research with the university's basic and applied research, the research and development of scientific research institutions, the transformation of achievements and engineering, and the large-scale production and manufacturing of enterprises. It is necessary to explore the establishment of an alliance for industrial technology innovation and build a common technology innovation platform that integrates enterprises with outstanding research institutes and famous universities, aiming at common key technologies and devices for development, jointly developing, sharing risks, and jointly competing to benefit each other.

To improve the level of food and packaging machinery and participate in international competition to improve the international competitiveness of food and packaging machinery products, it is necessary to change the characteristics of the “multi-species, small-batch” industries in the past, and devote special efforts to the formation of “small varieties,” "High-precision" competition. Nowadays, the way to obtain economic benefits from international food and packaging machinery is no longer the physical capital of the past in the traditional sense of variety, quantity, etc. Instead, it is replaced by well-known brands, high-tech applications and technical barriers, technological innovation, safety and health and other intangible capital. The role. Therefore, the way out for China's food and packaging machinery lies in the improvement of technical standards, product brands, technical barriers, technological innovation, and safety and health.

It is necessary to improve information technology and bring into play information technology such as online automatic monitoring, flexible manufacturing, and e-commerce, and transform and upgrade traditional industries. The internal management of the enterprise must realize information management and link the raw materials, inventory, logistics, sales and processing processes with information management technologies. Establish a complete industrial information system with market information as a precursor, raw materials, processing, sales, and logistics information as a whole, to achieve effective feedback and convergence of information among various industrial chains, and improve international competitiveness.

Strengthening discipline construction and training more high-quality talents The important foundation for high-tech development is the cultivation of high-quality talents. Strengthening the construction of food machinery disciplines is an important measure for training high-quality talents. In universities and colleges that currently have a good foundation in food and equipment, they should establish strong disciplines with excellent teaching staff, excellent research environment, and rich academic achievements, and cultivate the high-quality talents required by the food machinery industry. In scientific research institutes with a relatively good foundation of grants, we should pay attention to scientific and technological talents to carry out knowledge innovation, technological innovation and re-education, and to train more qualified personnel to meet the needs of industry development.

Supported by national policies In 2008, the growth rate of China's food industry has decreased, and the export rate has declined. The performance of domestic and foreign markets on food demand is weak, and the lack of market traction will lead to insufficient demand for food and packaging machinery in the food industry. In 2008, when the growth rate of the food industry was declining and the export speed was declining, the food and packaging machinery manufacturing industry maintained rapid growth. The main reason was that the food and packaging machinery manufacturing industry was lagging behind the food industry due to the financial crisis. If no effective countermeasures can be taken, food and packaging machinery manufacturing will be implicated in the future when the financial crisis hits the food industry. In order to cope with the spread and spread of the international financial crisis, the Party Central Committee and the State Council should promptly adjust macroeconomic control policies, implement active fiscal policies and moderately loose monetary policies. These policies need to address both the symptoms and the problems, overcome both the current difficulties and long-term development. Build the foundation; these policies need to be taken care of both inside and outside, both to expand internal demand and to stabilize external demand.

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